Thursday, September 27, 2012

Past Modals for opinions and advice, vocabulary.

Class plan today.
  • Go over homework.
  • Section 9, page 89 - Past modals for opinions and advice.
  •     Do section A. Then we'll go over it.
  • Section 10a
  • Workbook: page 76, section 5A
  • Listening: Section 11, page 13

This will be graded as a quiz!
Workbook, page 78, Section 7. 

Grammar: Past modals for opinions and advice

Giving advice
could: states an option or suggestion - something to try.
You could try Umniah instead of Zain as the company you use for internet at home.
You could use Jett busses to get to Aqaba because they are more comfortable for riding in.

could have: states options or suggestions for something that happened in the past; options given that are too late to act upon

You could have used Skype instead of your cellphone to call over seas, it would have been cheaper.
You could have taken a bus to Petra instead of renting a car because then you would not have gotten lost.
You could have chosen to eat something less spicy, then your stomach would feel better.

would: used to state a preference for something or an opinion about something
I would choose to use the bus instead of a taxi because it is cheaper.
I would choose the pink scarf instead of the purple one because I like the color pink better.
I would choose to go to Canada instead of the United States because they have better health care there.

would have: a polite way to make a request or state an opinion

  • I would have moved to Canada instead of the United States because of their health care system.
  • I would have eaten the knafa from the place just off of Queen Rania Highway  because it tastes better than the knafa from the place in Baqa'a.

wouldn't have: a polite way to state an opinion about doing something different than was done by someone


  • I wouldn't have tried to travel to Rainbow street on Friday afternoon because traffic is just too heavy!
  • I wouldn't have gone through Dahklia circle on Thursday night because there are protesters there then.
  • I wouldn't have taken a bus to Aqaba because it is boring. Instead I would have rented a car and enjoyed the drive.

Giving options
should: states advice, stronger suggestion, the best option
You should pay your bill before they turn off the internet.
You should put your clothes out to dry when it is sunny, not when it is raining. 

should have: advice about something in the past that should have happened; an opinion given too late to act upon it

You should have pressed the save button after every paragraph of your paper.
You should have locked the door to your car because then your computer would not have been stolen.
You should have paid the bill before they turned the internet off.

shouldn't have: advice about something in the past, but telling the person not to have done it; an opinion given too late to not act upon it.

You shouldn't have taken the exam without studying for it.
Jane shouldn't have made the bread without reading the recipe first.
Hussein shouldn't have left so late on Thursday for his evening job because traffic is very slow in Amman on Thursday evenings.


  1. an assumption: belief, guess, expectation
  2. a criticism: disapproval, negative judgement, negative thought about something
  3. a demand: strong request, command, order
  4. an excuse: reason for doing something, explanation
  5. a prediction: guess, informed thought about what will happen in the future
  6. a suggestion: advice about something to do
  7. a suspicion: feeling about something - usually negative; idea about something
  8. a warning: a notification about something that will happen - usually something bad that will happen.

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