Wednesday, October 3, 2012


Page 68 section 3.
Workbook page 77, section b.
Workbook page 80 section 2. 

Tuesday, October 2, 2012

Relative Clauses

Grammar: Relative clauses
Sections A & B in the book
Page 82 Section 5 in the workbook
Page 80 in the workbook, sections 2 & 3.

Relative clauses
Giving more information about something without using two sentences, or putting two sentences together.

  • It will contain a subject and a verb
  • It will begin with a relative pronoun.
  • It will act as an adjective -> answering questions like "what kind" or "how many" or "which one"

It will follow one of these two patterns:

Relative pronoun or adverb + subject + verb or
Relative pronoun as subject + verb

Relative pronouns (from English Grammar online)
relative pronounuseexample
whosubject or object pronoun for peopleI told you about the woman who lives next door.
whichsubject or object pronoun for animals and thingsDo you see the cat which is lying on the roof?
whichreferring to a whole sentenceHe couldn’t read which surprised me.
whosepossession for people animals and thingsDo you know the boy whose mother is a nurse?
whomobject pronoun for people, especially in non-defining relative clauses (in defining relative clauses we colloquially prefer who)I was invited by the professor whom I met at the conference.
thatsubject or object pronoun for people, animals and things in defining relative clauses (who or which are also possible)I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen.

Relative adverbs
Relative adverbmeaninguseexample
whenin/on whichrefers to a time expressionthe day when we met him
wherein/at whichrefers to a placethe place where we met him
whyfor whichrefers to a reasonthe reason why we met him

Defining relative clauses that are used to identify people
The information in the clause is necessary, it tells which person is being described or talked about. 
If you remove defining relative clauses, the sentence has a different meaning or no meaning at all.
Defining relative clauses are NOT put in commas.


  • Look out! There’s the dog that bit my brother.
  • The film that we saw last week was awful.
  • This is the skirt I bought in the sales.

Non defining relative clauses
These give information that is not important information for the sentence. If these clauses are removed then the sentence will not change it's meaning.
Non defining relative clauses are put in commas


  • The film, which stars Tom Carter, is released on Friday.
  • My eldest son, whose work takes him all over the world, is in Hong Kong at the moment.
  • The car, which can reach speeds of over 300km/ph, costs over $500,000.

Monday, October 1, 2012

1 October 2010

Speaking: step by step Section A.
Workbook, page 79, Section 1
Section 6: describe a process
Section 7: Word power

Camera operator: someone who runs a camera during filming of a movie
Computer programmer: someone who writes software (e.g. windows) programs)
Film editor: takes all the shots from filming a movie and puts them together into a feature movie
Foreign correspondent: someone who goes to another country and reports on events there
gossip columnist: someone who writes news about famous people
graphic designer: designs art work, page layout in a news paper, the art of a web page
movie producer: controls the money of a movie and how it is made
network installer: puts together computer hardware (a computer) and software (windows) to create a computer network
photo editor: someone who chooses photos for a magazine or newspaper
stunt person: is someone who fills in for an actor to do physically dangerous actions in a film
support technician: someone who helps with software questions and problems
web-page designer: someone who designs a web site 

Sunday, September 30, 2012

30 Sept 2012

Homework: Did you do it?
Section 1
Section 2 a: listening
Section 3: Grammar
  Do section 3a
Workbook: Page 79, Section 1.
Section 5A: in pairs

Passive to describe process

Reasons for using passive voice:
A) We don't know who does the action
B) It isn't important who does the action.

Basic passive: form of be  + past participle
A scene isn't filmed just once.
The best shots are used.
The research was completed by the team.

Passive with modal: modal + be + past participle
One scene may be shot from five or six different angles.
Lots of different shots have to be taken.
A lot of cows can be raised on a productive farm.

narrative: a description of events that tell a story
drive-in: a place where you can sit in your car and watch a movie on a big screen
epic: a book or a movie that tells a long story
IMAX film: a VERY VERY large screen movie shot with special cameras
animated: use of drawings rather than actors
feature film: a full length movie
gross: bring a total income 
shoot: to make a film
shot: a photo
angles: different views of the same thing
studio: a place where movies are filmed, pictures are taken
script: the words that the actors read and then perform
locations: places where the movie is filmed
costumes: clothing worn by the actors
sets: things that are built for a performance
rehearse: to practice
perform: to present a play
print: to make the pages for a book, newspaper, play, magazine, etc..
distribute: to send a product to different places to see (for example: to an outlet)

Thursday, September 27, 2012

Past Modals for opinions and advice, vocabulary.

Class plan today.
  • Go over homework.
  • Section 9, page 89 - Past modals for opinions and advice.
  •     Do section A. Then we'll go over it.
  • Section 10a
  • Workbook: page 76, section 5A
  • Listening: Section 11, page 13

This will be graded as a quiz!
Workbook, page 78, Section 7. 

Grammar: Past modals for opinions and advice

Giving advice
could: states an option or suggestion - something to try.
You could try Umniah instead of Zain as the company you use for internet at home.
You could use Jett busses to get to Aqaba because they are more comfortable for riding in.

could have: states options or suggestions for something that happened in the past; options given that are too late to act upon

You could have used Skype instead of your cellphone to call over seas, it would have been cheaper.
You could have taken a bus to Petra instead of renting a car because then you would not have gotten lost.
You could have chosen to eat something less spicy, then your stomach would feel better.

would: used to state a preference for something or an opinion about something
I would choose to use the bus instead of a taxi because it is cheaper.
I would choose the pink scarf instead of the purple one because I like the color pink better.
I would choose to go to Canada instead of the United States because they have better health care there.

would have: a polite way to make a request or state an opinion

  • I would have moved to Canada instead of the United States because of their health care system.
  • I would have eaten the knafa from the place just off of Queen Rania Highway  because it tastes better than the knafa from the place in Baqa'a.

wouldn't have: a polite way to state an opinion about doing something different than was done by someone


  • I wouldn't have tried to travel to Rainbow street on Friday afternoon because traffic is just too heavy!
  • I wouldn't have gone through Dahklia circle on Thursday night because there are protesters there then.
  • I wouldn't have taken a bus to Aqaba because it is boring. Instead I would have rented a car and enjoyed the drive.

Giving options
should: states advice, stronger suggestion, the best option
You should pay your bill before they turn off the internet.
You should put your clothes out to dry when it is sunny, not when it is raining. 

should have: advice about something in the past that should have happened; an opinion given too late to act upon it

You should have pressed the save button after every paragraph of your paper.
You should have locked the door to your car because then your computer would not have been stolen.
You should have paid the bill before they turned the internet off.

shouldn't have: advice about something in the past, but telling the person not to have done it; an opinion given too late to not act upon it.

You shouldn't have taken the exam without studying for it.
Jane shouldn't have made the bread without reading the recipe first.
Hussein shouldn't have left so late on Thursday for his evening job because traffic is very slow in Amman on Thursday evenings.


  1. an assumption: belief, guess, expectation
  2. a criticism: disapproval, negative judgement, negative thought about something
  3. a demand: strong request, command, order
  4. an excuse: reason for doing something, explanation
  5. a prediction: guess, informed thought about what will happen in the future
  6. a suggestion: advice about something to do
  7. a suspicion: feeling about something - usually negative; idea about something
  8. a warning: a notification about something that will happen - usually something bad that will happen.

Tuesday, September 25, 2012

Resources for learning English

Sept 25

Homework: lets go over it!

Section 1 vocabulary:
pet peeve: something that consistently annoys youmessy: not neatbe in short of money: to need money for somethingimpress: to try to get others to feel admiration for something you do

Grammar: Past modals for degrees of certainty
certainty? what does that word mean?

Modals of possibility
may: used when we are not sure of something, to make polite requests, to ask questions
may is more formal than might

Examples (from the British Council):
Jack may be coming to see us tomorrow. Oh dear! It’s half past ten. We may be late for the meeting. There may not be very many people there. May I borrow the car tomorrow? May we come a bit later?

might: used when we are not sure of something, for the past tense of may, and very polite requests.
could have 

Examples (from the British Council):
I might see you tomorrow.
It looks nice, but it might be very expensive.
It’s quite bright.
It might not rain today.
He asked if he might borrow the car.
They wanted to know if they might come later.
Might I ask you a question?
Might we just interrupt for a moment?
More information with links to exercises for practicing using may and might.

Modals of certainty
    must: more certain than couldn't have, used to express a positive thought rather than negative, used to express events in the present and the future
    I must go to the bank tomorrow to deposit my paycheck! 
    My children must get their rooms clean because their grandparents are coming for a visit.
    I must get this work done now.
    couldn't have: often used to reduce suspicion, used to express a negative thought, and to discuss something in the past. 

    He couldn't have broken that glass, he was in the other room.
    She couldn't have stolen the necklace, she was in Aqaba when it was taken!
    He couldn't have caused the car accident, he is an excellent driver.

    Workbook, page 73, write one sentence for each picture.